Neural Networks is the archival journal of the world's three oldest neural modeling societies: the International Neural Network Society (INNS), the European Neural Network Society (ENNS), and the Japanese Neural Network Society (JNNS). A subscription to the journal is included with membership in each of these societies. Neural Networks provides a forum for developing and nurturing an international community of scholars and practitioners who are interested in all aspects of neural networks and related approaches to computational intelligence. Neural Networks welcomes high quality submissions that contribute to the full range of neural networks research, from behavioral and brain modeling, learning algorithms, through mathematical and computational analyses, to engineering and technological applications of systems that significantly use neural network concepts and techniques. This uniquely broad range facilitates the cross-fertilization of ideas between biological and technological studies, and helps to foster the development of the interdisciplinary community that is interested in biologically-inspired computational intelligence. Accordingly, Neural Networks editorial board represents experts in fields including psychology, neurobiology, computer science, engineering, mathematics, and physics. The journal publishes articles, letters and reviews, as well as letters to the editor, editorials, current events, software surveys, and patent information. Articles are published in one of five sections: Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, Learning Systems, Mathematical and Computational Analysis, Engineering and Applications.