The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering (AJSE) is a peer-reviewed journal owned by King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and published by Springer. AJSE publishes twelve issues of rigorous and original contributions in the Science disciplines of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, and Physics, and in the Engineering disciplines of Chemical, Civil, Computer Science and Engineering, Electrical, Mechanical, Petroleum , and Systems Engineering. Manuscripts must be submitted in the English language and authors must ensure that the article has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere in any format, and that there are no ethical concerns with the contents or data collection. The authors warrant that the information submitted is not redundant and respects general guidelines of ethics in publishing. All papers are evaluated by at least two international referees, who are known scholars in their fields.